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Research Literature Abstracts

Abdollahi, M. Kathrine. 2002. "Understanding Police Stress Research." Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice 2 (2):1–24. doi:10.1300/j158v02n02_01.

Alghamdi, Mohammed, Nigel Hunt, and Shirley Thomas. 2015. "The Effectiveness of Narrative Exposure Therapy With Traumatised Firefighters in Saudi Arabia: A Randomized Controlled Study." Behaviour Research and Therapy 66:64–71. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2015.01.008.

Andrews, Leanne, Mark Shevlin, Nick Troop, and Stephen Joseph. 2004. "Multidimensionality of Intrusion and Avoidance: Alternative Factor Models of the Impact of Event Scale." Personality and Individual Differences 36 (2):431–446. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00107-7.

Ângelo, Rui, and Maria Jose Chambel. 2015. "The Reciprocal Relationship between Work Characteristics and Employee Burnout and Engagement: A Longitudinal Study of Firefighters." Stress and Health 31 (2):106–114. doi:10.1002/smi.2532.

Armstrong, Deanne, Jane Shakespeare-Finch, and Ian Shochet. 2014. "Predicting Post-Traumatic Growth and Post-Traumatic Stress in Firefighters." Australian Journal of Psychology 66 (1):38–46. doi:10.1111/ajpy.12032.

Augustin, Dyona, and Thomas J. Fagan. 2011. "Roles for Mental Health Professionals in Critical Law Enforcement Incidents: An Overview." Psychological Services 8 (3):166–177. doi:10.1037/a0024104.

Avraham, Nira, Hadass Goldblatt, and Eli Yafe. 2014. "Paramedics’ Experiences and Coping Strategies When Encountering Critical Incidents." Qualitative Health Research 24 (2):194–208. doi:10.1177/1049732313519867.

Aycock, Nancy, and Deborah Boyle. 2009. "Interventions to Manage Compassion Fatigue in Oncology Nursing." Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing 13 (2):183–191. doi:10.1188/09.cjon.183-191.

Bacharach, Samuel B., Peter A. Bamberger, and Etti Doveh. 2008. "Firefighters, Critical Incidents, and Drinking to Cope: The Adequacy of Unit-Level Performance Resources as a Source of Vulnerability and Protection." Journal of Applied Psychology 93 (1):155–169. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.93.1.155.

Baird, Stephanie, and Sharon Rae Jenkins. 2003. "Vicarious Traumatization, Secondary Traumatic Stress, and Burnout in Sexual Assault and Domestic Violence Agency Staff." Violence and Victims 18 (1):71–86. doi:10.1891/vivi.2003.18.1.71.

Baker, Sarah R., and Karen Williams. 2001. "Short Communication: Relation Between Social Problem-Solving Appraisals, Work Stress and Psychological Distress in Male Firefighters." Stress & Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress 17 (4):219–229. doi:10.1002/smi.901.

Balmer, Gemma M., Julie Ann Pooley, and Lynne Cohen. 2014. "Psychological Resilience of Western Australian Police Officers: Relationship between Resilience, Coping Style, Psychological Functioning and Demographics." Police Practice and Research 15 (4):270–282. doi:10.1080/15614263.2013.845938.

Becker, Carolyn Black, Glenn Meyer, John S. Price, Melissa M. Graham, Ashley Arsena, David A. Armstrong, and Elizabeth Ramon. 2009. "Law Enforcement Preferences for PTSD Treatment and Crisis Management Alternatives." Behaviour Research and Therapy 47 (3):245–253. doi:10.1037/e505102008-001.

Bednar, Susan G. 2003. "Elements of Satisfying Organizational Climates in Child Welfare Agencies." Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services 84 (1):7–12. doi:10.1606/1044-3894.70.

Bell, Holly. 2003. "Strengths and Secondary Trauma in Family Violence Work." Social Work 48 (4):513–522. doi:10.1093/sw/48.4.513.

Bennett, Paul, Yvette Williams, Nicola Page, Kerenza Hood, Malcolm Woollard, and Norman Vetter. 2005. "Associations between Organizational and Incident Factors and Emotional Distress in Emergency Ambulance Personnel." The British Journal of Clinical Psychology / the British Psychological Society 44 (Pt 2):215–226. doi:10.1348/014466505X29639.

Bercier, Melissa L., and Brandy R. Maynard. 2015. "Interventions for Secondary Traumatic Stress with Mental Health Workers: A Systematic Review." Research on Social Work Practice 25 (1):81–89. doi:10.1177/1049731513517142.

Berger, Rony, and Marc Gelkopf. 2011. "An Intervention for Reducing Secondary Traumatization and Improving Professional Self-Efficacy in Well Baby Clinic Nurses Following War and Terror: A Random Control Group Trial." International Journal of Nursing Studies 48 (5):601–610.

Bernabé, Miguel, and José Manuel Botia. 2015. "Resilience as a Mediator in Emotional Social Support’s Relationship With Occupational Psychology Health in Firefighters." Journal of Health Psychology, 1–9, 1359105314566258. doi:10.1177/1359105314566258.

Blacklock, Eddie. 2012. "Interventions Following a Critical Incident: Developing a Critical Incident Stress Management Team." Archives of Psychiatric Nursing 26 (1):2–8. doi:10.1016/j.apnu.2011.04.006.

Bonach, Kathryn, and Alex Heckert. 2012. "Predictors of Secondary Traumatic Stress among Children’s Advocacy Center Forensic Interviewers." Journal of Child Sexual Abuse 21 (3):295–314. doi:10.1080/10538712.2012.647263.

Bostock Matusko, Delphine, Richard I. Kemp, Helen M. Paterson, and Richard A. Bryant. 2013. "The Assessment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder for Workers’ Compensation in Emergency Service Personnel: Assessments for Compensation." Australian Psychologist 48 (6):420–427. doi:10.1111/ap.12009.

Bourassa, Dara Bergel. 2009. "Compassion Fatigue and the Adult Protective Services Social Worker." Journal of Gerontological Social Work 52 (3):215–229. doi:10.1080/01634370802609296.

Boyatzis, Richard E., Melvin L. Smith, and Nancy Blaize. 2006. "Developing Sustainable Leaders Through Coaching and Compassion." Academy of Management Learning & Education 5 (1):8–24. doi:10.5465/amle.2006.20388381.

Branson, Dana C., Daniel A. Weigand, and Jill E. Keller. 2014. "Vicarious Trauma and Decreased Sexual Desire: A Hidden Hazard of Helping Others." Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy 6 (4):398–403. doi:10.1037/a0033113.

Bride, Brian E. 2004. "The Impact of Providing Psychosocial Services to Traumatized Populations." Stress, Trauma, and Crisis 7 (1):29–46. doi:10.1080/15434610490281101.

Bride, Brian E., Melissa Radey, and Charles R. Figley. 2007. "Measuring Compassion Fatigue." Clinical Social Work Journal 35 (3):155–163. doi:10.1007/s10615-007-0091-7.

Brodie, Pamela J., and Christie Eppler. 2012. "Exploration of Perceived Stressors, Communication, and Resilience in Law-Enforcement Couples." Journal of Family Psychotherapy 23 (1):20–41. doi:10.1080/08975353.2012.654082.

Brondolo, Elizabeth, Robin Wellington, Nisha Brady, Daniel Libby, and Thomas J. Brondolo. 2008. "Mechanism and Strategies for Preventing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Forensic Workers Responding to Mass Fatality Incidents." Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 15 (2):78–88. doi:10.1016/j.jflm.2007.04.007.

Brough, Paula. 2004. "Comparing the Influence of Traumatic and Organizational Stressors on the Psychological Health of Police, Fire, and Ambulance Officers." International Journal of Stress Management 11 (3):227–244. doi:10.1037/1072-5245.11.3.227.

Brown, Jill, Gerry Mulhern, and Stephen Joseph. 2002. "Incident-Related Stressors, Locus of Control, Coping, and Psychological Distress Among Firefighters in Northern Ireland." Journal of Traumatic Stress 15 (2):161–168. doi:10.1023/A:1014816309959.

Bryant, Richard A., and Rachel M. Guthrie. 2005. "Maladaptive Appraisals as a Risk Factor for Posttraumatic Stress: A Study of Trainee Firefighters." Psychological Science 16 (10):749–752. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01608.x.

Bryant, Richard A., and Rachel M. Guthrie. 2007. "Maladaptive Self-Appraisals Before Trauma Exposure Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 75 (5):812–815. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.75.5.812.

Burke, Karena J., and Douglas Paton. 2006. "Predicting Police Officer Job Satisfaction: Traditional versus Contemporary Models of Trauma in Occupational Experience." Traumatology 12 (3):189–197. doi:10.1177/1534765606294989.

Burke, Karena J., and Jane Shakespeare-Finch. 2011. "Markers of Resilience in New Police Officers: Appraisal of Potentially Traumatizing Events." Traumatology 17 (4):52–60. doi:10.1177/1534765611430725.

Calderón-Abbo, José, Mindy Kronenberg, Michele Many, and Howard J. Ososfsky. 2008. "Fostering Healthcare Providers’ Post-Traumatic Growth in Disaster Areas: Proposed Additional Core Competencies in Trauma-Impact Management." The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 336 (2):208–214. doi:10.1097/maj.0b013e318180f5db.

Calo, Joseph. 2011. "The Changing Role of Leadership in the Fire Service." International Journal of Emergency Mental Health 14 (4):283–287.

Canfield, Julie. 2005. "Secondary Traumatization, Burnout, and Vicarious Traumatization: A Review of the Literature as It Relates to Therapists Who Treat Trauma." Smith College Studies in Social Work 75 (2):81–101. doi:10.1300/J497v75n02_06.

Carpenter, Grace Stephanie J., Thomas P. Carpenter, Nathan A. Kimbrel, Elisa J. Flynn, Michelle L. Pennington, Claire Cammarata, Rose T. Zimering, Barbara W. Kamholz, and Suzy B. Gulliver. 2015. "Social Support, Stress, and Suicidal Ideation in Professional Firefighters." American Journal of Health Behavior 39 (2):191–196. doi:10.5993/AJHB.39.2.5.

Catanese, Shiloh A. 2010. "Traumatized by Association: The Risk of Working Sex Crimes." Fed. Probation 74 (2):36–38.

Chang, ChiaMing, LiChing Lee, Kathryn M. Connor, Jonathan R. T. Davidson, and Te-Jen Lai. 2008. "Modification Effects of Coping on Post-Traumatic Morbidity Among Earthquake Rescuers." Psychiatry Research 158 (2):164–171. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2006.07.015.

Chapin, Mark, Stephen J. Brannen, Mark I. Singer, and Michael Walker. 2008. "Training Police Leadership to Recognize and Address Operational Stress." Police Quarterly 11 (3):338–352. doi:10.1177/1098611107307736.

Chiu, Sydney, Mayris P. Webber, Rachel Zeig-Owens, Jackson Gustave, Roy Lee, Kerry J. Kelly, Linda Rizzotto, et al. 2011. "Performance Characteristics of the PTSD Checklist in Retired Firefighters Exposed to the World Trade Center Disaster." Annals of Clinical Psychiatry 23 (2):95–104.

Chopko, Brian A., Patrick A. Palmieri, and Richard E. Adams. 2013. "Associations Between Police Stress and Alcohol Use: Implications for Practice." Journal of Loss and Trauma 18 (5):82–497. doi:10.1080/15325024.2012.719340.

Chopko, Brian A., Patrick A. Palmieri, and Richard E. Adams. 2015. "Critical Incident History Questionnaire Replication: Frequency and Severity of Trauma Exposure Among Officers from Small and Midsize Police Agencies." Journal of Traumatic Stress 28 (2):157–161. doi:10.1002/jts.21996.

Chopko, Brian A., Patrick A. Palmieri, and Vanessa C. Facemire. 2013. "Prevalence and Predictors of Suicidal Ideation Among U.S. Law Enforcement Officers." Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology 29 (1):1–9. doi:10.1007/s11896-013-9116-z.

Chopko, Brian A., and Robert C. Schwartz. 2012. "Correlates of Career Traumatization and Symptomatology Among Active-Duty Police Officers." Criminal Justice Studies 25 (1):83–95. doi:10.1080/1478601X.2012.657905.

Cicognani, Elvira, Luca Pietrantoni, Luigi Palestini, and Gabriele Prati. 2009. "Emergency Workers’ Quality of Life: The Protective Role of Sense of Community, Efficacy Beliefs and Coping Strategies." Social Indicators Research 94 (3):449–463. doi:10.1007/s11205-009-9441-x.

Cieslak, Roman, Kotaro Shoji, Allison Douglas, Erin Melville, Aleksandra Luszczynska, and Charles C. Benight. 2014. "A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship Between Job Burnout and Secondary Traumatic Stress Among Workers with Indirect Exposure to Trauma." Psychological Services 11 (1):75–86. doi:10.1037/a0033798.

Clemans, Shantih E. 2005. "Recognizing Vicarious Traumatization: A Single Session Group Model for Trauma Workers." Social Work With Groups 27 (2-3):55–74. doi:10.1300/J009v27n02_05.

Colvin, Heather M., and Rachel M. Taylor. 2012. Building a Resilient Workforce: Opportunities for the Department of Homeland Security: Workshop Summary. Washington D.C.: The National Academy Press. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK201572/.

Conrad, David, and Yvonne Kellar-Guenther. 2006. "Compassion Fatigue, Burnout, and Compassion Satisfaction Among Colorado Child Protection Workers." Child Abuse & Neglect 30 (10):1071–1080. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2006.03.009.

Craun, Sarah W., Michael L. Bourke, David M. Bierie, and Katria S. Williams. 2014. "A Longitudinal Examination of Secondary Traumatic Stress Among Law Enforcement." Victims & Offenders 9 (3):299–316. doi:10.1080/15564886.2013.848828.

Craun, Sarah W., Michael L. Bourke, and Frances N. Coulson. 2015. "The Impact of Internet Crimes Against Children Work on Relationships With Families and Friends: An Exploratory Study." Journal of Family Violence 30 (3):393–402. doi:10.1007/s10896-015-9680-3.

Creamer, Mark C., Tracey Varker, Jonathan Bisson, Kathy Darte, Neil Greenberg, Winnie Lau, Gill Moreton. 2012. "Guidelines for Peer Support in High-Risk Organizations: An International Consensus Study Using the Delphi Method." Journal of Traumatic Stress 25 (2):134–141. doi:10.1002/jts.21685/full.

D’Andrea, Livia M., Paul C. Abney, Richard Swinney, and James R. Ganyon. 2004. "Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) in Rural Communities." Traumatology 10 (3):179–187. doi:10.1177/153476560401000304.

Davidson, Ann C., and Simon A. Moss. 2008. "Examining the Trauma Disclosure of Police Officers to Their Partners and Officers’ Subsequent Adjustment." Journal of Language and Social Psychology 27 (1):51–70.

Del Ben, Kevin S., Joseph R. Scotti, Yi-Chuen Chen, and Beverly L. Fortson. 2006. "Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Firefighters." Work & Stress 20 (1):37–48. doi:10.1080/02678370600679512.

Devilly, Grant J., Richard Gist, and Peter Cotton. 2006. "Ready! Fire! Aim! The Status of Psychological Debriefing and Therapeutic Interventions: In the Work Place and After Disasters." Review of General Psychology 10 (4):318–345. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.10.4.318.

Donnelly, Elizabeth A., and Michael Bennett. 2014. "Development of a Critical Incident Stress Inventory for the Emergency Medical Services." Traumatology 20 (1):1–8. doi:10.1177/1534765613496646.

Douglas, Emily M. 2013. "Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Among Child Welfare Workers Who Experience a Maltreatment Fatality on Their Caseload." Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work 10 (4):373–387. doi:10.1080/15433714.2012.664058.

Dowdall-Thomae, Cynthia, John Gilkey, Wanda Larson, and Rebecca Arend-Hicks. 2011. "Elite Firefighter/First Responder Mindsets and Outcome Coping Efficacy." International Journal of Emergency Mental Health 14 (4):269–281.

Dursun, Onur Burak, Mustafa Talip Sener, Ibrahim Selcuk Esin, Yüksel Ançi, and Şermin Yalin Sapmaz. 2014. "Does Working With Child Abuse Cases Affect Professionals' Parenting and the Psychological Well-Being of Their Children?" Journal of Trauma & Dissociation 15 (5):557–571. doi:10.1080/15299732.2014.912713.

Ehrenreich, John H., and Teri L. Elliott. 2004. "Managing Stress in Humanitarian Aid Workers: A Survey of Humanitarian Aid Agencies’ Psychosocial Training and Support of Staff." Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology 10 (1):53–66. doi:10.1207/s15327949pac1001_4.

Engstrom, David, Pilar Hernandez, and David Gangsei. 2008. "Vicarious Resilience: A Qualitative Investigation Into Its Description." Traumatology 14 (3):13–21. doi:10.1177/1534765608319323.

Everly, George S., Stephen H. Boyle, and Jeffrey M. Lating. 1999. "The Effectiveness of Psychological Debriefing with Vicarious Trauma: A Meta-Analysis." Stress and Health 15 (4):229–233. doi:10.1002/(sici)1099-1700(199910)15:4%3C229::aid-smi818%3E3.0.co;2-m.

Fay, Joel, M. Kamena, A. Benner, and A. Buscho. 2006. "A Residential Milieu Treatment Approach for First-Responder Trauma." Traumatology 12 (3):255–262. doi:10.1177/1534765606294991.

Freedman, Tovia G. 2004. "Voices of 9/11 First Responders: Patterns of Collective Resilience." Clinical Social Work Journal 32 (4):377–393. doi:10.1007/s10615-004-0538-z.

Friedman, Thomas. 2006. "Trauma Among Emergency Responders and Terrorism Investigators: Suggestions for Conducting Needed Research." Journal of Emergency Management 4 (3):41–46.

Gallagher, Sharon, and Sinéd Mcgilloway. 2007. "Living in Critical Times: The Impact of Critical Incidents on Frontline Ambulance Personnel—A Qualitative Perspective." International Journal of Emergency Mental Health 9 (3):215–223.

Gentry, J. Eric, Jennifer Baggerly, and Anna Baranowsky. 2003. "Training-As-Treatment: Effectiveness of the Certified Compassion Fatigue Specialist Training." International Journal of Emergency Mental Health 6 (3):147–155.

Gershon, Robyn, Susan Lin, and Xianbin Li. 2002. "Work Stress in Aging Police Officers." Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 44 (2):160–167.

Gersons, Berthold, Ingrid Carlier, Regina Lamberts, and Bessel van der Kolk. 2000. "Randomized Clinical Trial of Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Police Officers With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder." Journal of Traumatic Stress 13 (2):333–347. doi:10.1023/a:1007793803627.

Gibbs, Judy A. 2001. "Maintaining Front-Line Workers in Child Protection: A Case for Refocusing Supervision." Child Abuse Review 10 (5):323–335. doi:10.1002/car.707.

Gist, Richard, and Vickie Harris Taylor. 2008. "Occupational and Organizational Issues in Emergency Medical Services Behavioral Health." Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health 23 (3):309–330. doi:10.1080/15555240802243120.

Habersaat, Stephanie A., Ashley M. Geiger, Sid Abdellaoui, and Jutta M. Wolf. 2015. "Health in Police Officers: Role of Risk Factor Clusters and Police Divisions." Social Science & Medicine 143:213–222. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.08.043.

Halpern, Janice, Maria Gurevich, Brian Schwartz, and Paulette Brazeau. 2009. "Interventions for Critical Incident Stress in Emergency Medical Services: A Qualitative Study." Stress and Health 25 (2):139–149. doi:10.1002/smi.1230.

Halpern, Janice, Robert G. Maunder, Brian Schwartz, and Maria Gurevich. 2012. "Identifying, Describing, and Expressing Emotions After Critical Incidents in Paramedics." Journal of Traumatic Stress 25 (1):111–114. doi:10.1002/jts.21662.

Harris, Morag B., Mustafa Baloğlu, and James R. Stacks. 2002. "Mental Health of Trauma-Exposed Firefighters and Critical Incident Stress Debriefing." Journal of Loss & Trauma 7 (3):223–238. doi:10.1080/10811440290057639.

Harrison, Richard L., and Marvin J. Westwood. 2009. "Preventing Vicarious Traumatization of Mental Health Therapists: Identifying Protective Practices." Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training 46 (2):203–219. doi:10.1037/a0016081.

Harvey, Samuel B., Josie S. Milligan-Saville, Helen M. Paterson, Emily L. Harkness, Annabel M. Marsh, Mark Dobson, Richard Kemp, and Richard A. Bryant. 2015. "The Mental Health of Fire-Fighters: An Examination of the Impact of Repeated Trauma Exposure." Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 50 (7):649–658. doi:10.1177/0004867415615217.

Haslam, Cheryl, and Krissie Mallon. 2003. "A Preliminary Investigation of Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms Among Firefighters." Work & Stress 17 (3):277–285. doi:10.1080/02678370310001625649.

Haugen, Peter T., Mark Evces, and Daniel S. Weiss. 2012. "Treating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in First Responders: A Systematic Review." Clinical Psychology Review 32 (5):370–380. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2012.04.001.

Hawker, Debbie M., John Durkin, and David S. J. Hawker. 2011. "To Debrief or Not to Debrief Our Heroes: That Is the Question." Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy 18 (6):453–463. doi:10.1002/cpp.730.

Hernández, Pilar, David Gangsei, and David Engstrom. 2007. "Vicarious Resilience: A New Concept in Work with Those Who Survive Trauma." Family Process 46 (2):229–241. doi:10.1111/j.1545-5300.2007.00206.x.

Hernandez-Wolfe, Pilar, Kyle Killian, David Engstrom, and David Gangsei. 2015. "Vicarious Resilience, Vicarious Trauma, and Awareness of Equity in Trauma Work." Journal of Humanistic Psychology 55 (2):153–172. doi:10.1177/0022167814534322.

Hesketh, Ian, Cary L. Cooper, and Jonathan Ivy. 2015. "Well-Being, Austerity and Policing: Is It Worth Investing in Resilience Training?" The Police Journal 88 (3):220–230.

Howard, Amanda R. Hiles, Sheri Parris, Jordan S. Hall, Casey D. Call, Erin Becker Razuri, Karyn B. Purvis, and David R. Cross. 2015. "An Examination of the Relationships Between Professional Quality of Life, Adverse Childhood Experiences, Resilience, and Work Environment in a Sample of Human Service Providers." Children and Youth Services Review 57:141–148. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2015.08.003.

Howlett, Samantha L., and Anthony Collins. 2014. "Vicarious Traumatisation: Risk and Resilience Among Crisis Support Volunteers in a Community Organisation." South African Journal of Psychology 44 (2):180–190. doi:10.1177/0081246314524387.

Huddleston, Lynne M., Douglas Paton, and Christine Stephens. 2006. "Conceptualizing Traumatic Stress in Police Officers: Preemployment, Critical Incident, and Organizational Influences." Traumatology 12 (3):170–177. doi:10.1177/1534765606294911.

Hyland, Philip, Mark Shevlin, Gary Adamson, and Daniel Boduszek. 2014. "The Organization of Irrational Beliefs in Posttraumatic Stress Symptomology: Testing the Predictions of REBT Theory Using Structural Equation Modelling: Irrational Beliefs in Posttraumatic Stress Symptomology." Journal of Clinical Psychology 70 (1):48–59. doi:10.1002/jclp.22009.

Jahnke, Sara A., Richard Gist, Walker S. Carlos Poston, and Christopher K. Haddock. 2014. "Behavioral Health Interventions in the Fire Service: Stories From the Firehouse." Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health 29 (2):113–126. doi:10.1080/15555240.2014.898568.

Jankoski, Jo Ann. 2010. "Is Vicarious Trauma the Culprit? A Study of Child Welfare Professionals." Child Welfare 89 (6):105–120.

Jarero, Ignacio, Carolina Amaya, Martha Givaudan, and Alaide Miranda. 2013. "EMDR Individual Protocol for Paraprofessional Use: A Randomized Controlled Trial with First Responders." Journal of EMDR Practice and Research 7 (2):55–64. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.7.2.55.

Jeannette, James. 2009. "Creating a Critical Incident Stress Program: A Firefighter’s Transition from Client to Counselor." International Journal of Emergency Mental Health & Human Resilience 11 (4):215–219.

Jenkins, Sharon, and Stephanie Baird. 2002. "Secondary Traumatic Stress and Vicarious Trauma: A Validational Study." Journal of Traumatic Stress 15 (5):423–432. doi:10.1023/a:1020193526843.

Johnson, Scott A. 2009. "Impact of Pornography on Forensic Mental Health and Law Enforcement Professionals: Effective Coping Strategies." International Journal of Emergency Mental Health 11 (2):93–96.

Kehl, Doris, Daniela Knuth, Lynn Hulse, and Silke Schmidt. 2014. "Posttraumatic Reactions among Firefighters after Critical Incidents: Cross-National Data." Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma 23 (8):842–853. doi:10.1080/10926771.2014.938143.

Kimbrel, Nathan A., Elisa J. Flynn, Grace Stephanie J. Carpenter, Claire M. Cammarata, Frank Leto, William J. Ostiguy, Barbara W. Kamholz, Rose T. Zimering, and Suzy B. Gulliver. 2015. "Internal Consistency, Test-Retest Reliability, and Predictive Validity for a Likert-Based Version of the Sources of Occupational Stress-14 (SOOS-14) Scale." Psychiatry Research 228 (3):961–962. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.05.031.

Kimbrel, Nathan A., Laurie E. Steffen, Eric C. Meyer, Marc I. Kruse, Jeffrey A. Knight, Rose T. Zimering, and Suzy B. Gulliver. 2011. "A Revised Measure of Occupational Stress for Firefighters: Psychometric Properties and Relationship to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Depression, and Substance Abuse." Psychological Services 8(4): 294–306. doi:10.1037/a0025845.

Kirby, Robyn, Jane Shakespeare-Finch, and Gavan Palk. 2011. "Adaptive and Maladaptive Coping Strategies Predict Posttrauma Outcomes in Ambulance Personnel." Traumatology 17 (4):25–34. doi:10.1177/1534765610395623.

Kitchiner, Neil J. 2004. "Psychological Treatment of Three Urban Fire Fighters with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Using Eye Movement Desensitisation Reprocessing (EMDR) Therapy." Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery 10 (3):186–193. doi:10.1016/j.ctnm.2004.01.004.

Kleim, Birgit, and Maren Westphal. 2011. "Mental Health in First Responders: A Review and Recommendation for Prevention and Intervention Strategies." Traumatology 17 (4):17–24. doi:10.1177/1534765611429079.

Komarovskaya, Irina, Adam D. Brown, Isaac R. Galatzer-Levy, Anita Madan, Clare Henn-Haase, Julie Teater, Brandi H. Clarke, Charles R. Marmar, and Claude M. Chemtob. 2014. "Early Physical Victimization Is a Risk Factor for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Among Mississippi Police and Firefighter First Responders to Hurricane Katrina." Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy 6 (1):92–96. doi:10.1037/a0031600.

Kulkarni, Shanti, Holly Bell, Jennifer L. Hartman, and Robert L. Herman-Smith. 2013. "Exploring Individual and Organizational Factors Contributing to Compassion Satisfaction, Secondary Traumatic Stress, and Burnout in Domestic Violence Service Providers." Journal of the Society for Social Work & Research 4 (2):114–130. doi:10.1037/e621642012-201.

Lambert, Jessica, Charles Benight, Erica Harrison, and Roman Cieslak. 2012. "The Firefighter Coping Self-Efficacy Scale: Measure Development and Validation." Anxiety, Stress & Coping 25 (1):79–91. doi:10.1080/10615806.2011.567328.

LeBlanc, Vicki R., Cheryl Regehr, R. Blake Jelley, and Irene Barath. 2008. "The Relationship between Coping Styles, Performance, and Responses to Stressful Scenarios in Police Recruits." International Journal of Stress Management 15 (1):76–93. doi:10.1037/1072-5245.15.1.76.

Lee, Jong-Sun, Yeon-Soon Ahn, Kyoung-Sook Jeong, Jeong-Ho Chae, and Kyeong-Sook Choi. 2014. "Resilience Buffers the Impact of Traumatic Events on the Development of PTSD Symptoms in Firefighters." Journal of Affective Disorders 162:128–133. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2014.02.031.

Levenson, Richard L. 2007. "Prevention of Traumatic Stress in Law Enforcement Personnel: A Cursory Look at the Roles of Peer Support and Critical Incident Stress Management." Forensic Examiner 16 (3):16–19.

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