This manual is the product of the Mass Casualty Protocol project, which was funded by the U.S. Justice Department's Office for Victims of Crime. Overall, the manual examines the role of victim compensation programs during a mass casualty incident and describes a strategy for serving victims, survivors, allied victim professionals, and compensation program staff. The proposed mass casualty protocol provides suggestions for policies and actions before, during, and after a mass casualty event. For all three stages, the manual discusses procedures that pertain to involvement by disaster-related agencies; media and public awareness; training; donations, emergency-preparedness funds, and supplemental funding; mobilization; program logistics; program guidelines; staff stress; and standard operating procedures. One section of the manual outlines lessons learned from the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. This section focuses on how the following States applied lessons from these attacks: California, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. The next section of the manual focuses on how victim compensation issues have been addressed in Colorado in the 5 years subsequent to the killings at Columbine High School, as well as changes in victim compensation schemes in the 9 years after the bombing of the Murrah Building in Oklahoma City. Appendixes provide supplementary information on the work of the Office for Victims of Crime, networking, resources, and how to respond in providing victim compensation when mass casualties occur due to natural disasters.