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Human Trafficking

Resources & Research

Child Victims and Witnesses Support Materials: Human Trafficking

View best practices for a justice system response to children and youth who are victims or witnesses of human trafficking. These materials, written for young survivors, feature characters who explain how the justice system works in a developmentally appropriate way.

Now available in five additional languages: African French, Brazilian Portuguese, Chinese (simplified), Spanish, and Vietnamese.

View these materials Watch a video about the materials

 

Publications and Products

General Resources

TitlePublisherDate
Human Trafficking Capacity Building Center Resource LibraryOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsoredn.d.
Confronting Labor Trafficking Through a Victim-Centered Approach (video)Office for Victims of Crime2024/02
Standards of Care for Human Trafficking Survivors (audio)Office for Victims of Crime and Office on Trafficking in Persons2022/03
Child Victims and Witnesses Support Materials: Human TraffickingOffice for Victims of Crime2022/01
Partnerships and Pathways to Economic Opportunity for Survivors of Trafficking: A GuideOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022/01
The Office for Victims of Crime: An Ongoing Commitment to Victims of Human TraffickingOffice for Victims of Crime2021/01
Human Trafficking Action Research ToolkitOffice for Victims of Crime Training and Technical Assistance Center2020/12
Human Trafficking Outreach ToolkitOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2020/07
Multidisciplinary Collaborative Model for Anti-Human Trafficking Task Forces: Development and Operational RoadmapOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2020/07
Housing Options for Survivors of Human TraffickingOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2020
Human Trafficking Housing Options: Partnerships with LandlordsOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2020
Helping Survivors Navigate Online Education and Training OpportunitiesOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2020
Human Trafficking Capacity Building Center Annual Report 2020Office for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2020
Trauma Responsiveness in an Integrated Workforce Service Delivery SystemOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2020
Trauma-Informed Care for Survivors of Human Trafficking: A State of the Field in 2019Office for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2020
Human Trafficking Housing Options: Housing Choice Voucher ProgramsOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2019
Collaborating with Homeless Shelters to Serve Survivors of Human TraffickingOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2019
Rapid Re-Housing: Securing Housing for Survivors of TraffickingOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2019
Continuums of CareOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2019
The Rights-Based Approach In Housing for Survivors of Human TraffickingOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2019
General Tips for T Visas for Victims of Severe Form of Trafficking in PersonsOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2018/04
"Physical Presence on Account of Trafficking": Eligibility Requirement for T Visa ApplicantsOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2018/04
Human Trafficking Victims with Disabilities or Mental IllnessOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2018
2018 Human Trafficking Statistical Fact SheetOffice for Victims of Crime2018
Federal Strategic Action Plan on Services for Victims of Human Trafficking in the United States: Fiscal Year 2016 Status ReportOffice for Victims of Crime2017/08
The Vicarious Trauma ToolkitOffice for Victims of Crime2017/04
Faces of Human TraffickingOffice for Victims of Crime2016/01
Post-Conviction Advocacy for Survivors of Human Trafficking: A Guide for AttorneysOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2016
Federal Strategic Action Plan on Services for Victims of Human Trafficking in the United States: Fiscal Years 2013–2014 Status ReportOffice for Victims of Crime2015/07
Human Trafficking Task Force e-GuideOffice for Victims of Crime and Bureau of Justice Assistance2014/10
Trauma-Informed Case
Management with Foreign
National Children and Youth
Survivors of Trafficking
Office for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2021/06
Trauma-Informed Practice in the Field: Recommendations for Human Trafficking Service ProvidersOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2021/10
Trauma-Informed Crisis Response and Safety Planning: Tips for Stakeholders: Supporting Individuals Exiting Human Trafficking SituationsOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022
Cultural Humility AdvisoryOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2021/06
Collaboration Toolkit for Anti-Trafficking & Housing ProgramsOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022
Building Trauma-informed Practices for Anti-Trafficking Housing ProgramsOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022
Five Tiers of Economic EmpowermentOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022
Obstacles and Opportunities: Improving Survivors’ Access to Education, Training, and JobsOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2021
Housing Concepts for Anti-Trafficking Programs: Coordinated EntryOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2021/12
Opportunities for Survivors of Human Trafficking Through the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA): A PrimerOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2019/05
Maximizing Justice: Building a Prosecution Review ProcessOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2020/12
Enhanced Collaborative Model (ECM) Anti-Human Trafficking Task Force Protocol Development ChecklistsOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2020/07
Tips For Trauma-Informed Survivor Employee SupportOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022/01
Tips for Hiring and Interviewing at Your Anti-Trafficking AgencyOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022/01
Together, Apart: Outreach During COVID-19Office for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2020/11
Building and Integrating Trauma-Conscious Service DeliveryOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022/04
Representation Matters: Using Trauma-Informed Language and Imagery in Victim Services (video)Office for Victims of Crime Training and Technical Assistance Center2022/12
Screening Guidelines for Housing ProgramsOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022/12
Housing Intake TemplateOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022/12
Intake Guidelines for Anti-Trafficking Housing ProgramsOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022/12
Trauma-Informed Practice in the Field: Recommendations for Human Trafficking Service Providers in 2021Office for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022/10
Crossover Between Sex and Labor Trafficking: Elevation Without Segregation Takeaways SheetOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022/10
Human Trafficking Task Force Protocol Development Training Video SeriesOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2023

Labor Trafficking

TitlePublisherDate
Labor Trafficking of U.S. MinorsOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022/01
Survivor Perspectives on Labor Trafficking Service Needs Takeaways SheetOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022/12
The Ties That Bind Us: A Survivor-Led Discussion on Trauma Bonding Takeaways SheetOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022/09
Trafficking, Incarceration, and Survival: How the Criminal Legal System Harms Survivors Takeaways SheetOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022/08
Financial Literacy Takeaways SheetOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022/07
Naming and Healing From Trauma Takeaways SheetOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022/07
Preparing for Employment Takeaways SheetOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022/07
Needs and Essential Partnerships Takeaways SheetOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022/07
Honoring Black Voices in the Anti-Trafficking Movement Takeaways SheetOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022/07
Screening and Interviewing Takeaways SheetOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022/07
Creating Labor Trafficking Outreach Materials Takeaways SheetOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022/01
Outreach To U.S. Minors Takeaways SheetOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022/01
Tips For Survivor-Informed SupervisionOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022/01
Labor Trafficking Resource GuideOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2021/10
Labor Trafficking Outreach Planning Discussion GuideOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2021/02
Case Study: Labor Trafficking Identification – Crystal’s StoryOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2020/10
Survivor Perspectives: Increasing Identification Through Labor Trafficking OutreachOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2020/10
Labor Trafficking Protocol Guidelines: Identifying and Responding to Victims of Labor Trafficking 24 Years Old and UnderOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2019/01
Outreach To Domestic Workers Takeaways SheetOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2021/05
Outreach To Restaurant Workers Takeaways SheetOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2021/05
Outreach To Agricultural Workers Takeaways SheetOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2021/02
Case Study: Red Flag Practice – Ximena’s StoryOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2020/10
Case Study: Identifying Vulnerabilities – Jared’s StoryOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2020/10
Case Study: Increasing Identification Through Outreach – Anna’s StoryOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2020/10
Survivor Perspectives: Takeaways SheetOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2020/12

Sex Trafficking

TitlePublisherDate
Combating and Preventing Sex Trafficking of Black Girls (video)Office for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022/04
Supporting the Education and Employment Needs of Survivors with Criminal RecordsOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2022
Workable Solutions for Criminal Record Relief: Recommendations for Prosecutors Serving Victims of Human TraffickingOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2019/11
A Guide for Anti-Trafficking Programs Working with Domestic Violence SheltersOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2019
A Healing Journey for Alaska NativesOffice for Victims of Crime-Sponsored2016/10

General Resources

Collaboration and Challenges in Antitrafficking Task Forces: Lessons Learned from the Enhanced Collaborative Model Task Forces to Combat Human Trafficking, National Institute of Justice-Sponsored, June 2022 

Recommendations for Practitioners Evaluation of the Enhanced Collaborative Model Task Forces to Combat Human Trafficking, National Institute of Justice-Sponsored, June 2022

Findings from an Evaluation of the Enhanced Collaborative Model Task Forces to Combat Human Trafficking, National Institute of Justice-Sponsored, January 2022

Evaluation of the Enhanced Collaborative Model to Combat Human Trafficking, Technical Report, National Institute of Justice-Sponsored, 2021

Enhanced Collaborative Model to Combat Human Trafficking, Bureau of Justice Assistance-Sponsored, January 2020

Alternative Forms of Justice for Human Trafficking Survivors: Considering Procedural, Restorative, and Transitional Justice, National Institute of Justice-Sponsored, March 2018

Comparing Narratives of Justice: How Survivors, Criminal Justice Stakeholders, and Service Providers Perceive Justice in Human Trafficking Cases, National Institute of Justice-Sponsored, March 2018

Delivering Justice for Human Trafficking Survivors: Implications for Practice, National Institute of Justice-Sponsored, March 2018

Justice in Their Own Words: Perceptions and Experiences of (In)Justice among Human Trafficking Survivors, National Institute of Justice-Sponsored, March 2018 

Bending Towards Justice: Perceptions of Justice among Human Trafficking Survivors, National Institute of Justice-Sponsored, January 2018

Capturing Human Trafficking Victimization Through Crime Reporting, National Institute of Justice-Sponsored, 2018

Evaluation of Strategies to Stabilize and Integrate Adult Survivors of Human Trafficking to the United States, National Institute of Justice-Sponsored, April 2016

Labor Trafficking

Understanding and Characterizing Labor Trafficking Among U.S. Citizen Victims, National Institute of Justice, April 2022

Labor Trafficking in North Carolina: A Statewide Survey Using Multistage Sampling, National Institute of Justice-Sponsored, 2018

Sex Trafficking

Indicators of Sex Trafficking in Online Escort Ads, National Institute of Justice-Sponsored, October 2022

Understanding the Perspective of the Victim: Recognizing the Complexity of Sex Trafficking Situations, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention-Sponsored, October 2017

Missing Children, State Care, and Child Sex Trafficking Engaging the Judiciary in Building a Collaborative Response, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention-Sponsored, June 2015

Economic Empowerment for People Who Have Experienced Human Trafficking: A Guide for Anti-Trafficking Service Providers, Administration of Children and Families, October 2023

Recent Labor Trafficking Cases and Trends, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, August 2023

National Strategy to Combat Human Trafficking, U.S. Department of Justice, January 2022

National Advisory Committee on the Sex Trafficking of Children and Youth in the United States: Best Practices and Recommendations for States, National Advisory Committee on the Sex Trafficking of Children and Youth in the United States, September 2020

Senior Policy Operating Group Public Awareness and Outreach Committee Guide For Public Awareness Materials (non-binding), February 2020, President’s Interagency Task Force to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons

Toolkit for Building Survivor-Informed Organizations, February 2018, Office of Trafficking in Persons-sponsored

Adult Human Trafficking Screening Tool and Guide, January 2018, Office of Trafficking in Persons-sponsored

Domestic Victims of Human Trafficking Demonstration Projects, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, September 2017

Combating Trafficking Native Youth Toolkit on Human Trafficking, Administration for Native Americans and Office on Trafficking in Persons, 2017

Human Trafficking Leadership Academy Survivor-Informed Practice: A Self-Guided Assessment Tool, Office on Trafficking in Persons- and the Office on Women’s Health-sponsored, 2017

Federal Strategic Action Plan on Services for Victims of Human Trafficking in the United States: Fiscal Year 2015 Status Report, Administration for Children and Families, November 2016

A Victim-Centered Approach to Sex Trafficking Cases, Federal Bureau of Investigation, November 2015

 

Resources and Statistics

CrimeSolutions
CrimeSolutions is a searchable online database of evidence-based programs covering a range of justice-related topics. The site is a tool to understand, access, and integrate scientific evidence about programs into programmatic and policy decisions.

Legal Services Corporation
Legal Services Corporation (LSC) is a private, nonprofit corporation established by Congress in 1974. LSC makes grants to independent local programs across the country to provide civil legal services to Americans without considerable financial means. The Trafficking Victims Protection Act granted the LSC the responsibility to extend program services to those eligible for T and U Visas.

The Vicarious Trauma Toolkit
Research shows that vicarious trauma, when left unaddressed, can lead to staff burnout, turnover, stress, and a lesser quality of services for victims. This OVC toolkit offers guidance to help organizations strengthen their ability to address work-related exposure to trauma. The toolkit contains a state-of-the-art repository with nearly 500 resources for the fields of victim services, emergency medical services, fire services, law enforcement, and other allied professions. The toolkit includes a Blueprint for a Vicarious Trauma-Informed Organization to help organizations begin the process of becoming more trauma-informed.

VictimLaw
VictimLaw, a comprehensive online database of federal, state, and Tribal victims’ rights law, is supported by OVC. It includes victims’ rights provisions that pertain specifically to victims of human trafficking in several categories of rights that are most commonly enacted from state to state.

Grants.gov
This "one-stop storefront" provides a unified process for all customers of federal grants to find funding opportunities and apply for funding. Grants.gov provides access to all discretionary grants offered by 26 federal grant-making agencies, including the U.S. Departments of Justice, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, and Labor.

In addition to OVC, many Federal Government agencies are working to combat human trafficking. While not a comprehensive list of all anti-trafficking efforts, the below list provides a summary of many of these initiatives.

U.S. Department of Justice

The U.S. Department of Justice is committed to a collaborative approach to combating human trafficking and improving services for victims. Visit the U.S. Department of Justice's Human Trafficking website and view the information below to learn more.

Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section (CEOS)
CEOS works to combat incidences of child exploitation and sex trafficking of minors. Issues under the CEOS umbrella include child pornography, illegal interstate or international transportation of minors, international parental abduction, computer-related exploitation of children, and child victimization on federal and Indian lands.

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
The FBI is responsible for investigating human trafficking. The FBI also runs the Innocence Lost National Initiative, focusing on sex trafficking of children within the United States.

Human Trafficking Prosecution Unit
The U.S. Department of Justice’s Human Trafficking Prosecution Unit works closely with Assistant United States Attorneys and law enforcement agencies to streamline fast-moving trafficking investigations, ensure consistent application of trafficking statutes, and identify multijurisdictional trafficking networks.

National Institute of Justice
The National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, funds research on—

  • the nature and extent of human trafficking,
  • detecting and investigating traffickers,
  • prosecuting traffickers, and
  • services for trafficking victims.

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, implements training and capacity-building initiatives related to the commercial sexual exploitation of children. The office funds the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, which helps prevent child abduction and sexual exploitation; find missing children; and operates a toll free missing children's hotline. The office also funds projects to investigate the Internet-related crimes of child pornography and enticement through the Internet Crimes Against Children Task Force program.

U.S. Agency for International Development

The U.S. Agency for International Development supports international programs to prevent trafficking, protect and assist victims, and support prosecutions.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

The Family Violence Prevention and Services Program
The Family Violence Prevention and Services Program of the Family and Youth Services Bureau, at the Administration of Children & Families, administers the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act, the primary federal funding stream dedicated to the support of emergency shelter and related assistance for victims of domestic violence and their children.

Office of Refugee Resettlement
The Office of Refugee Resettlement, at the Administration of Children & Families, helps refugees and other special populations, such as adult victims of severe forms of trafficking, obtain economic and social self-sufficiency in the United States.

Office on Trafficking in Persons
The Office on Trafficking in Persons, at the Administration of Children & Families, seeks to create pathways to freedom for victims and those at risk of human trafficking by—

  • developing anti-trafficking strategies, policies, and programs to prevent human trafficking,
  • empowering health and human services organizations to respond to human trafficking,
  • increasing victim identification and access to services, and
  • strengthening health and well-being outcomes of survivors.

Visit the Office on Trafficking in Persons' Map Domestic Victims of Human Trafficking Program Grantees to locate anti-trafficking service providers funded by this office.

Runaway and Homeless Youth Program
Through the Runaway and Homeless Youth Program, the Family and Youth Services Bureau, Administration of Children & Families, supports street outreach, emergency shelters, and longer-term transitional living and maternity group home programs to serve and protect these young people.

U.S. Department of State

Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons
Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons conducts awareness-raising activities, diplomacy with other countries, and funding for international anti-trafficking initiatives.

U.S. Department of Homeland Security

Blue Campaign
The Blue Campaign provides information on training and outreach, how traffickers operate, and victim assistance to help keep the public informed.

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services adjudicates applications for T and U visas, which are available to foreign national victims of trafficking. Lawyers and advocates may check on the status of an already submitted case by calling the Violence Against Women Act Unit Helpline at 802–527–4888.

U.S. Department of Defense

Combating Trafficking in Persons
The Combating Trafficking in Persons Program Office establishes policy and ensures that the services, combatant commands, and defense agencies have the necessary tools to prevent trafficking.

U.S. Department of Education

National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments
This Center offers a Human Trafficking in America’s Schools guide to help school officials understand how human trafficking impacts schools; recognize the indicators of possible child trafficking; and develop policies, protocols, and partnerships to address and prevent the exploitation of children.

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)

HUD's Continuum of Care Program

  • promotes communitywide commitment to the goal of ending homelessness,
  • provides funding for efforts by nonprofit providers and state and local governments to quickly rehouse homeless individuals and families while minimizing the trauma,
  • promotes access to and effect use of mainstream programs by homeless individuals and families, and
  • optimizes self-sufficiency among individuals and families experiencing homelessness.

U.S. Department of Labor

Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor & Human Trafficking
The Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor & Human Trafficking publishes reports on international child labor, forced labor, and human trafficking. The Office also funds programs to combat international child labor.

Wage and Hour Division
The Wage and Hour Division enforces federal labor laws including the Fair Labor Standards Act and the Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers Protection Act. The Division assists with human trafficking investigations involving the violation of these laws.

The Division's Timesheet App allows users to record the hours that they work and includes a function to calculate overtime pay. The app is available to download in both English and Spanish.

Employment & Training Administration
The Employment & Training Administration sponsors CareerOneStop. This program offers services such as job-search, job-placement assistance, job-counseling services, and more to human trafficking survivors.

U.S. Department of Transportation

The Department of Transportation trains transportation employees and the traveling public to recognize and report possible instances of human trafficking.

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

Anti-discrimination laws enforced by the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, particularly those prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, national origin, and sex, are an integral part of the fight against human trafficking.

It is difficult to measure the magnitude of human trafficking in the United States. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, due to the nature of human trafficking, many of these crimes are never identified by local, state, Tribal, and federal law enforcement agencies that investigate them.

Although statistics are available, they provides an incomplete picture of this complex issue. A National Institute of Justice-funded study “found that inadequate victim identification was a problem not only for law enforcement but also for victim service providers.”

Existing data on human trafficking focuses on identified victims. However in order for researchers to make accurate estimations on the prevalence of human trafficking, law enforcement, victim service providers, social services, and others need to be able to better identify victims.

View OVC human trafficking grantee data on services provided to trafficking victims. Data from OVC human trafficking grantees is available on total clients served, new clients served, services most frequently provided to clients, and more.

Note that data in these reports only represent services provided by OVC-funded human trafficking grantees and does not represent services provided to all human trafficking victims in the United States, nor do all human trafficking victims seek or receive services.

For further information, view the following resources.

View the Human Trafficking Capacity Building Center’s Collecting Data to Better Understand Human Trafficking fact sheet for information on gathering data on human trafficking to inform your organization’s efforts to better identify and serve trafficking victims in the community.

Date Modified: February 12, 2024
Date Created: May 1, 2020